In addition, professional and technical education helps students see how what they are learning applies to the needs of employers. Technical education is knowledge about the best life skills, which provides an additional advantage to students in addition to general education. Career and Technical Education (CTE) has traditionally played an important role in the U.S. UU.
The first federal law providing funding for vocational education was passed in 1917, even before education became compulsory in every state. 1.The CTE covers a wide range of activities aimed at simultaneously providing students with the skills demanded in the labor market and, at the same time, preparing them for higher education, qualifications in technical fields. Activities include not only specific career-oriented classes, but also internships, internships and school programs designed to encourage work readiness. CTE advocates cite several objectives of career-oriented learning experiences.
For students who are not going to college, CTE can provide practical training that directly translates into attractive careers upon graduation. The work-related experiences or internships that are often part of the CTE can teach students the “soft skills” needed in the labor market. Finally, by integrating academic skills into a “real-world” context, advocates say that the CTE can motivate students to attend school more often and to participate more and, therefore, improve basic academic skills. Unfortunately, research on the CTE has not kept pace with political interest.
8.Previous non-experimental evidence suggests that students who participate in high school CTE programs have more employment and income than their demographically similar short-term peers, but do not necessarily have better academic results. For example, many studies show little or no difference between CTE participants and comparison groups in terms of academic performance, high school graduation, or college enrollment. 9 A good example of this type of research is a recent study by Daniel Kreisman and Kevin Stange, which is based on data from the NLSY. 97, a nationally representative sample of young people aged 12 to 17 in 1997 that tracks people over time.
They found that participation in CTE is not strongly associated with educational attainment (CTE students are slightly less likely to enroll in college, but no less likely to earn a degree), but CTE courses do predict job outcomes. It is important to note that participation in the CTE is associated with higher salaries, and that the increase is due exclusively to higher-level courses, defined as courses within a sequence beyond the introductory class, in more technical fields. Every additional year of higher-level vocational courses is associated with a salary increase of nearly 2 percent. 10 This suggests that the benefits of CTE education come from an in-depth study of a specific area, consistent with the recent trend toward “pathways of study” within the CTE, 11.However, as the authors recognize, the biggest challenge in evaluating the CTE is that students tend to self-select in such programs, or student options are circumscribed by the types of programs offered in nearby schools.
In any case, students who participate in the CTE are likely to be different in many ways from other young people who do not participate in the CTE, in terms of their personal abilities and interests, family background, etc. On the one hand, many observers have described the CTE as a “dump” for underperforming or demotivated students. 12 On the other hand, since the CTE is not the “default route”, students who participate must be at least somewhat motivated and informed. 13 CTE can motivate students to attend school more.
frequently and be more engaged and, therefore, improve basic academic skills. Kreisman and Stange try to overcome this selection problem using what researchers call an instrumental variable strategy. Simply put, they compare students from different schools with different high school graduation requirements because, as they show, the greater the number of courses required, the fewer CTE courses students take. With this approach, they discover that the wage benefits associated with CTE disappear.
However, a key assumption here is that, after controlling for the observable characteristics of students and the school, students who attend high schools with fewer graduation requirements are identical to those who attend high schools with more graduation requirements, 14 As the authors recognize, this It's an assumption. If this assumption is true, it implies that students whose taking of CTE courses is influenced by graduation requirements derive little benefit from it. Of course, it may still be the case that those who self-select to participate in the CTE benefit from it, and that prohibiting them from doing so would be harmful. Another complication is that virtually all existing research on chronic traumatic encephalopathy has focused on relatively short-term results.
This is a notable limitation because many believe that career-focused education involves compensation, namely, learning a more limited set of technical skills that can provide short-term benefits at the expense of learning more fundamental skills that will better serve people in the long term, 15 In fact, a recent A study using European data finds some evidence of exactly this type of compensation, 16 Given the changes we expect to see in the labor market in the coming years and the frequency with which people might need to change occupations, this is a potentially serious concern. Of course, CTE advocates argue—with some justification—that career-oriented education today aims to teach the basic academic skills essential to lifelong learning and often does so better than traditional education, particularly for disadvantaged young people. 17.The best way to avoid such selection, problems and determine the causal impact of a policy or program is through a randomized control trial. While these experiments can be costly and are often logistically or politically difficult, they have a long history in educational policy research.
Other research designs, known as quasi-experimental research, attempt to approximate the same design with statistical techniques. According to What Works Clearinghouse, for example, there are 83 programs with experimental or quasi-experimental evidence in the area of early childhood education, 39 programs for the prevention of dropouts and 32 programs for English language learners. Structured as distinct programs integrated into comprehensive secondary schools, the Professional Academies provided students with career-oriented instruction in a particular field, along with internships and other activities to prepare students for and connect them to the labor market. The schools in the study were located in or near large urban areas with predominantly low-income minority student populations.
Career Academy programs were oversubscribed, allowing admissions to be determined by lottery. Researchers found that professional academies had no impact (positive or negative) on high school graduation, enrollment in higher education, or educational performance. However, the study found that students who received the opportunity to attend a professional academy earned 11 percent more than the control group. Interestingly, this positive wage effect was driven entirely by male students, who enjoyed an income increase of 17 percent.
Men are defined as high-risk based on baseline characteristics (i.e.,. (Before high school) got the most benefits from the program. There was no significant difference between the income of women in the treatment and control groups. This single study has been cited hundreds of times and has a prominent place in almost every literature review and in many policy proposals related to the CTE.
While this was an extremely well-done evaluation of an important CTE model, it has significant limitations. As noted elsewhere, career academies are a small component of CTE delivery across the country. 19 The study itself focused on a small number of sites that, as evidenced by their oversubscription, were perceived as being of high quality. 20.
Compelling research on ETC was recently doubled with the publication of a new study of vocational and technical high schools (RVTS) in Massachusetts, 21 Unlike the professional academies described above, RVTS are entire schools dedicated to career-oriented instruction. Students spend a week in the classroom, followed by a week in a technical workshop. While students at other schools have access to CTE courses, RVTS offer more variety in terms of the program of study, and the programs themselves tend to be of higher quality than those found in comprehensive high schools. The study's author, Shaun Dougherty, obtained detailed data on student applications for three RVTS.
Because schools are often oversubscribed, they admit students based on their high school attendance, grades, and disciplinary background. By comparing the educational outcomes of students who scored just above the admission threshold (and were therefore highly likely to attend) and just below the admission threshold (who mostly didn't attend), Dougherty can explain the selection bias that has plagued research Previous CTE. This approach is known as regression and discontinuity design. What Works Clearinghouse believes that well-conducted studies of this type provide evidence almost as convincing as an RCT.
Dougherty discovers that attending an RVTS dramatically increases the likelihood of graduating from high school. Poor students are 32 percentage points more likely to graduate if they attend an RVTS, an increase of 60 percent given the basic graduation rate of 50 percent. The effect on non-poor students is slightly smaller, but still quite large: an increase of 23 percentage points from a baseline of 67 percent, suggesting an improvement of nearly 35 percent. 22 At the same time, Dougherty concludes that attending an RVTS has no impact (positive or negative) on the standardized mathematics and reading tests that all Massachusetts students take at the end of tenth grade.
Clearly, more rigorous research is needed on CTE programs. To its credit, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) recently initiated several new grants for data collection and research in this area. Dougherty's recent study is a great start, but only a start. Further progress requires a series of studies that build on each other and examine different approaches to ETC.
Because states play an important role in developing and overseeing CTE programming, they must take the initiative. States have been very active in passing laws, issuing regulations and disseminating policies on the CTE. States must now intensify and support a research agenda that can help ensure the success of these new initiatives. Technical education is important to provide students with hands-on learning that better prepares them for the workforce after graduation.
This will give students a better understanding and understanding of their study of interest before entering the workforce. As the world increasingly needs technical specialists capable of performing specific jobs, the importance of schools producing such professionals will only increase even more. Over the past century, formal education grew in importance and scope, and more and more students chose higher education in the fields of medicine, engineering and mathematics. But why exactly is technical education so important today? What makes it a viable option regardless of your social status and sphere of interest? Let's try to find some answers.
In general, technical schools, as a rule, take a much more active role in the professional development and career promotion of their graduates. As a result, technical education—that is, education in areas that often involved direct physical work and the practical application of one's skills—practically fell by the wayside. Of course, CTE advocates argue, with some justification, that career-oriented education today aims to teach the basic academic skills essential to lifelong learning and often does so better than traditional education, particularly for disadvantaged youth. For a long time, formal education was mainly associated with the humanities or with fields such as engineering, medicine and mathematics.
Both old universities and new establishments, such as IGNOU, adopt this new paradigm and offer their students instruction in technical skills, believing that it is the best way to help them find their path in life. This is a notable limitation because many believe that career-focused education involves compensation, namely, learning a more limited set of technical skills that can provide short-term benefits at the expense of learning more fundamental skills that will better serve people in the long term. The skills learned in the course of technical education are more than just experiences gained while doing homework. Suddenly, your additional technical skills may be extremely useful to you as you search for a job in your preferred field, and who knows, maybe they themselves could be the foundation of a lucrative career or a business venture.